Tuesday, October 6, 2009

Purposes & Types of Informative Speaking

Purposes of Informative Speaking
Informative speaking offers you an opportunity to practice your researching, writing, organizing, and speaking skills. You will learn how to discover and present information clearly. If you take the time to thoroughly research and understand your topic, to create a clearly organized speech, and to practice an enthusiastic, dynamic style of delivery, you can be an effective "teacher" during your informative speech. Finally, you will get a chance to practice a type of speaking you will undoubtedly use later in your professional career.
The purpose of the informative speech is to provide interesting, useful, and unique information to your audience. By dedicating yourself to the goals of providing information and appealing to your audience, you can take a positive step toward succeeding in your efforts as an informative speaker.

Types of Informative Speaking
1) Narrative Speech
A narrative is a type of informative speech that tells a story, relating a series of events. A narrative may be fictional or true. The narrative speech is organized chronologically and should include the use of transitions, such as next, then, afterwards, etc. Organize your speech carefully and include only main events or significant, relevant details of the story. Limit yourself to a specific time frame; in other words, don't try to tell your life story in 5 minutes.

Example of topics:

Birth of a Child
First Day of College
An Event that Changed Your Life
Story told to you by your Parents or Grandparents
A Frustrating Experience
Graduation Day
First Date
Family Gathering
Once upon a Time...
Exciting Vacation
Historical Event
Moving Day

2) Demonstrative /Process Analysis Speech

A demonstration speech is a type of informative speech. We will define a demonstration as any speech in which the speaker attempts to show the audience how to do something, how to make something, or how something works. In order to make effective demonstrations, a speaker needs the following: the audience to accept his or her personal expertise, a clear chronological organizational pattern, and the ability to use the materials of the demonstration. The speaker must demonstrate and explain; the speaker must identify the steps in the process and present them systematically.

Example of topics:
How to do it: racquetball killshot, hanging wallpaper, refinish furniture, perform basic magic
tricks, rewire a lamp, develop film
How to make it: paper figures, wood carvings, unusual dish, scrapbook
How it works: zone defense, compact disc, camera, photo copier, human circulatory system,

Sample Outline for Demonstrative Speech

General Purpose: To demonstrate
Specific Purpose: To demonstrate (how to properly groom your dog.) (replace with
your topic).
Central Idea: You can save money and bond in a big way if you groom your dog yourself.

Introduction: How much money do you spend on getting your dog groomed? $30, $40, $50 or more? Today I will demonstrate how to properly groom your dog and help you save money as well as bond more strongly with man's best friend.

Transition: Okay, let’s get ready by gathering everything we will need.
Body: (Use at least 3 main points)
1. Gather Materials
a. Brushes (explain different types of brushes for different dogs)
b. Towels
c. Nail Clippers (explain how to clip nails without cutting the quick)
d. Cotton
e. Special Ear Wash for Dogs
f. Shampoo

Transition: Now that we have all the grooming equipment, we need a dog! Here Fido!

2. Grooming steps
a. Brush dog to get rid of excess and matted hair
b. Clean ears with Cotton and Ear Wash
c. Wash/dry dog
d. Clip nails
3. After Grooming
a. Praise Fido for being such a trooper
b. Give Fido a treat
c. Pet Fido for awhile and do the bonding thing

Transition: Doesn't he look great.

Grooming your dog is pretty simple. Simply gather all the materials you need, then brush out the excess or matted hair, clean the ears, wash/dry Fido then clip his nails. After the grooming is the most important step so don't forget to praise and pet your dog!

Although grooming your own dog may take a bit more time than just leaving him at the groomer's, doing it yourself is a great way to save money and for the two of you to connect more deeply. What could be better than that!

Using a demonstrative speech outline will help you to organize your ideas and the flow of your demonstration. This will help you to feel relaxed and confident in presenting your demonstration or how to speech. Have fun!

3) Persuasive Speech

Settling on the right persuasive speech topics to meet your needs can be a bit tricky without igniting your passions or those of the audience members. Before you decide on your topic area, though, it is important to understand the fundamental concept of a persuasive speech.

When you think of a persuasive speech assignment, you may think only in terms of today's hottest topics in the headlines. In fact, though, if you consider those the only viable persuasive speech topics, you may be overlooking some of the most important aspects of good persuasive speeches.
The goal of any good persuasive speech is to help listeners make a decision about a topic. You want to influence your audience members to take action, whether that action be to change their beliefs on an issue or actually engage in some sort of activity.
Your persuasive speech will not only have to extrapolate on the finer points of your argument, it will also have to recognize the ideas of the other side of the issue.
If you are too fanatical about a particular topic, you may not be able to weigh both sides of the issue enough to satisfy the curiosity of audience members. As a result, focusing only on the most talked about issues of the day may not be a good idea from your standpoint or from the chairs in the speaking auditorium.

Motivational Sequence Speech--Persuasive (Action speech)
*a five step organizational plan for persuasive messages
1. Attention Step - getting listener’s attention
2. Need Step - establishing why a topic, problem, or issue should concern listeners
3. Satisfaction Step - briefly identifying how a plan will satisfy or meet a need
4. Visualization Step - describing outcomes if your solution is or is not adopted
5. Action - telling listeners the specific action they can take to implement your solution

Example of topics:

* Donate blood to the Red Cross * Become involved in a particular club
* Sign an organ donor card * Donate time or money
* Buy a particular product or service * Quit smoking
* Volunteer for a specific organization * Eat healthy
* Vote * Animal rights/testing

Sample Outline for Persuasive Speech

Persuasive speech outline purpose: To persuade my audience to donate blood through the American Red Cross.

1. Did you know that blood donated to the American Red Cross saves XXX lives per year?
2. People should give blood because it is easy and though there might be a little pain involved it is worth it because it saves so many lives and you get great snacks.

I. Giving blood is easy
a. It only takes about an hour
b. You just lay back and let the nurses do the work
c. It generally doesn't hurt much at all

II. The blood you give saves lives
a. People in accidents, people with cancer, people having surgery and women having babies are saved
b. Tell story of Linda K. whose life was saved when she started hemorrhaging after the birth of her twins.

III. If that isn't enough reason, you get great snacks
a. You are not allowed to leave until you have had something to eat and drink like crackers, cookies and juice
b. At some blood drives restaurants donate food

1. There is a blood drive this Friday at the fire station from 10 to 3. Please start your habit of blood donation right away.
2. If you cannot donate this Friday I urge you to donate blood through the American Red Cross at another time because it is easy, you will get great snacks and, most importantly, you will save lives!
You can see how in this persuasive speech outline the topic and thesis are stated in the introduction, the reasons for giving blood are the main points in the body of the outline and the conclusion contains the call to action.
Other ways of organizing a persuasive speech outline are "problem--solution", comparative advantages, criteria satisfaction, and motivational sequence.
Creating an effective persuasive speech outline is a critical element of preparing and delivering a persuasive speech that truly fulfills its purpose of persuading the audience to share your belief or take a particular action.
The persuasive speech outline will keep you on track. You will introduce your topic and your thesis effectively in the beginning of the speech.
You will provide the supportive material you need to build your case in the body of the speech.
The evidence that you use in the form of statistics, quotes, expert testimony and examples will support each of the main points.
Finally you will make your powerful call to action in the conclusion of your speech.
Now, go forth and be persuasive!

3) Informative Speech

Coming up with the right informative speech topics can be one of the most difficult parts of writing an informative speech. Before you come up with a strong topic, though, it is probably important to understand the basic premise of an informative speech.

Informative speeches are, essentially, a way to provide your audience with information on a given topic.
That information should be useful and helpful to those listening.
A good way to think of an informative speech is to think of it in terms of a teaching speech.
Your job as a speaker is to teach the audience everything they might need to know about your topic such as the effects of caffeine on your body or marriage rituals around the world.
Good informative speeches start with strong informative speech topics and a good informative speech outline.
Make sure that each piece of information you offer audience members is important to the topic you have chosen. Everything in your speech should be of value to audience members.
Selecting the right informative speech topic is easily one of the hardest parts of the speech process, but there are a few ways to make the process a bit easier on you.
In many real life speaking situations, what you speak about is dictated by the needs of the situation. For example, if your boss has asked you to speak during your morning meeting about the new software your company recently purchased, your chosen informative speech topic would obviously be the program your boss wants you to discuss.
However, there are times you will have to come up with your own ideas for informative speech topics. In a classroom setting, the teacher will often allow you to choose your own topic, thereby requiring you to come up with a subject matter that you want to write a speech on.

Example of topics:

- Caffeine
- Hybrid animals
- Childhood obesity
- How humour heals to get you started

Sample Outline for Informative Speech

1. How many people here are dog lovers?
2. I have loved dogs as long as I can remember and today I will talk about my three favorite breeds.

I. Great Dane
i. Appearance
ii. History
iii. Personality
II. St. Bernard
i. Appearance
ii. History
iii. Personality
III. Bloodhound
i. Appearance
ii. History
iii. Personality

1. When it comes to dogs, everyone has their favorite. Today I hope you've learned something about the three breeds I love best, the Great Dane, St. Bernard and the Bloodhound.
This informative speech outline is an example of a very simple topically organized speech. In a more focused speech presenting a detailed history of the Great Dane, a chronological order might be used and the main points would be specific events that are important in the history of the Great Dane.
The important elements of writing an informative speech outline are having an introduction, a body with main points and sub points, and a conclusion. Be sure to put your main points in a logical order according to a topical, chronological or spatial organization and you'll have a great informative speech outline!

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