Tuesday, December 28, 2010

Merry Christmas & Happy New Year to all visitors of this blog (^_^)


Check out this SlideShare Presentation:
It is tested in Final Exam for UFS 201

Question Tags in ESL


auxiliary verb + subject

1. If the auxiliary verb in the sentence is positive, the tag is negative.
You are Spanish, aren't you?

2. If the auxiliary verb in the sentence is negative, the tag is positive.
You're not Spanish, are you?

3. If there is no auxiliary verb in the sentence, we use do.
You live in Spain, don't you?

Functions and examples

1. We use tag questions to confirm information.
This meal is horrible, isn't it?
That film was fantastic, wasn't it?

2. We use tag questions when we are already sure of the answer and just want confirmation (falling intonation with the tag question).

3. We use tag questions to check information.
You haven't got a piece of paper, have you?
You don't know where the boss is, do you?
The meeting's tomorrow at 9am, isn't it?

4. If we do not know the answer, these are real questions, and we use a rising intonation with the tag question.

Important points

1. In the present tense, if the subject is 'I', the auxiliary changes to 'are' or 'aren't'.
I'm sitting next to you, aren't I?

2. With 'let's', the tag question is 'shall we'.
Let's go to the beach, shall we?

3. With an imperative, the tag question is 'will you'.
Close the window, will you?

4. We use a positive tag question after a sentence containing a negative word such as never, hardly, nobody.
Nobody lives in this house, do they?
You've never liked me, have you?

5. When the subject is nothing, we use 'it' in the tag question.
Nothing bad happened, did it?

6. When the subject is nobody, somebody, everybody, no one, someone, or everyone, we use'they' in the tag question.
Nobody asked for me, did they?

7. If the main verb in the sentence is 'have' (not an auxiliary verb), it is more common to use 'do'in the question tag.
You have a Ferrari, don't you?

8. With used to, we use 'didn't' in the tag question.
You used to work here, didn't you?

9. We can use positive question tags after positive sentences to express a reaction such as surprise or interest.
You're moving to Brazil, are you?

Going Green General Tips

Every little bit is a step to help save the earth.

If you want to learn more about the tip then just click on the link (if available) to go to a page that will elaborate on the topic.
  1. Change to Fluorescent Bulbs - If every house in the United States changed all of the light bulbs in their house, that would be equivalent to taking one million cars off the streets.
  2. Don't Rinse - Skip rinsing your plates before putting them into the dishwasher. In average you will save 15 gallons of water per load. Plus, you will save time.
  3. Hang Outside to Dry - Get a cloths line or rack to dry your cloths. Your cloths will last longer and you will save money
  4. Turn off computers at night - don't just put them to sleep. You will save an average of 4 cents a day which ads up to $14.60 a year.
  5. Use Both Sides of Paper - if you have a printer with a double sided print option use it. You will save half of the amount of paper you would have normally used.

    Then when your done bring it to the recycle bin.
  6. Get rid of baths - Don't take baths, take showers. You will in average save about half the amount of water that you would if you were taking a bath.
  7. Don't get bottled water - Instead of bottled water get a reusable container to carry water. Also you can get a filter to make your home tap taste more like bottled water. It is definitely more cost efficient.
  8. Turn the water off when you brush - Your parents have said this before, now I say it. You will save 4 gallons of water doing this alone.
  9. Shorten your shower - Every minute you cut from your shower is roughly 5 gallons of water. The less time your shower takes, the lower your impact on the environment.
  10. Recycle Glass - If you do not recycle this, it will take a million years to decompose.
  11. Don't Pre-Heat the Oven - unless needed, just turn the oven on after you put the dish in it. Also, to see if it's finished just look through the glass instead of opening it.
  12. Use Warm or Cold Setting on Washer - instead of the hot cycle use the warm or cold setting. This will save a lot of energy a year.
  13. Turn Down your Thermostat - Every degree lower in the winter or higher in the summer you put it is a 10% decrease on your energy bill.
  14. Turn off your lights - An easy one. Turn off your lights when you are not using them. The benefits are obvious.
  15. Get rid of junk mail - There are many services that can help you get rid of junk mail. That will lead to a lot less trees being cut down to take up room in your mailbox.
  16. Use Matches instead of lighters - Lighters are usually considered disposable so they will most likely end up in land fills. You can use the cardboard matches which are much more eco-friendly because they are made of recycled material.
  17. Don't get a paper phone book - Instead of getting a paper phone book. Use a online directory instead.
  18. Give things away - Take things that you are not going to wear or use and give it to a charity or someone who will use it.
  19. Go to a car wash - Going to a car wash is a lot more water efficient then washing your car at home.
  20. Stop paper bank statements - Why waste paper getting your bank statement mailed to you when you can just check it out online.
  21. Buy Rechargeable Batteries - Even though it will take a good investment to buy these you will find yourself gaining it back in no time.
  22. Pay your Bills Online - If every house in the US did this then we would save 18 million trees every year.
  23. Get a reusable bag - You can't recycle plastic bags, instead get yourself a reusable bag so that you won't have to worry about carrying your necessities.
  24. Do Errands in Bulk - Make a list of the things you have to do, and see if you can fit a couple of those things together in one ride.
  25. Inflate your Tires - If your tires are inflated at all times your car will run more miles on less gas.
  26. Wrap Presents Creatively - Without going out to get wrapping paper you can use newspaper, an old map, or anything else. It would look a whole lot more creative.
  27. Plant a Tree - It's good for the air, can keep you cool, and can increase your property value.
  28. Buy Local Produce - Consider how much energy it takes for produce from china or any other country to come here. If you have the option to buy local, do it.
  29. Walk or Ride Your Bike When you can - If you have to go somewhere close consider riding your bike or walking there instead of your car. It's better on the environment and healthier.

Guide to Forming the Verb Phrase in Conditional Sentences

Factual Conditional Sentences: FORMING THE VERB OR VERB PHRASE

1. To express a future possibility or make a prediction

Condition Clause                               Result Clause
Present tense                                      will, can, should, could, may, might + base form
Present progressive tense
Present perfect tense


If countries do not conserve their resources, they will regret it later.

If Andreas is telephoning me right now, he will get a busy signal.

*Note: A conditional sentence with the modal will expresses the strongest possibility, a prediction.  The
other modals indicate a lesser degree of possibility.


If you have not bought your ticket, you may not get a seat.

If Mina is not attending class regularly, she could fail the course.

If the letter has not come by now, it might not arrive at all.

2. To express a general fact or a habitual action

Condition Clause                               Result Clause
Same tense                                          same tense


If a caterpillar matures, it becomes a chrysalis. (fact)

Whenever my roommate studied late, I stayed up too. (habitual action)

*Note: When and whenever are often used instead of if to express a habitual action.

3. To make an inference

Condition Clause                                Result Clause
Present tense                                       must or should + base form
Past tense                                            must have + past participle


If the store is already closed, it must be later than we thought.

If Nam really did lose his wallet instead of misplacing it, he must have felt very nervous.  

4. To give a command or instructions

Condition Clause                                 Result Clause
Present tense                                        imperative
Past tense
Present perfect tense


If you miss the lecture, go to see the teacher.

If you missed the lecture, go to see the teacher.

If you have missed the lecture, go to see the teacher.

Hypothetical Conditional Sentences: FORMING THE VERB OR VERB PHRASE

1. To express a present or future hypothetical or contrary-to-fact situation

*Note: In the condition clause, when the simple past form or the past progressive form is used,
were is used for all forms of be.

Condition Clause                                          Result Clause
Simple past form                                          would, could, might + base form
                                                                    would, could, might + base form + ing
Past progressive form                                   would, could, might + base form
                                                                    would, could, might + base form + ing
Could, would + base form                            would, could, might + base form

If I were you, I would save more money.
If Gabriel lived at home instead of in the dormitory, he would have a quiet place to study.
If Mona cleaned up her apartment every week, she would not always be complaining about how
messy it is.
If Sheila were not working in the dining hall, she could not afford college.
If Mike could find his library card, he would start his term paper.

*Note: In the example sentences above, were to + a preposition may be used for the simple past
form of the verb, as in If Gabriel were to live at home or If Mona were to clean her apartment
every week.

2. To express a hypothetical situation in the past
Condition Clause                                          Result Clause
Past perfect form                                          would, could, might + have + past participle
                                                                    would, could, might + have + been + base form + ing
Past perfect progressive form                        would, could, might + have + past participle
                                                                     would, could, might + have + been + base form + ing

If Gail had turned her lab report in on time, she would have received the full ten points on it.
If Lana had not refused to lend us his car, we could have been driving to the beach right now.
Natasha might have enjoyed the movie if she had not been concentrating so hard on
understanding what the actors were saying.
If Carmen had been paying attention in class, he would not have been asking his friends how to
do the assignment last night.

5 Paragraph Essay

Example of Essay - "My Best Friend"

English Composition Writing on My Best Friend

My best friend is someone I have known since my childhood. Our friendship goes back to the time when I was ten years old. His name is Harry, and he lived a couple of blocks from my house. We had a lot in common, and we spent time together during the weekends. 

I remembered many of my favorite hobbies were because of his influence. I learned to play the guitar from him, and I started martial arts classes because he did the same. That was back in the year 1974. Now you know how old I am. That is right, the years have gone by, and even today as I sit here typing on my computer, I still have my guitar sitting right beside me. It was a hobby that changed my life and I thank him because he was the one who taught me how to play the guitar. I remember the days when we used to have our own bicycles. That was my first bicycle, and I wanted to have one that look just like Harry's. Strange, but somehow, he seemed to be a big influence on me in my early years. Maybe because I saw him as a role model.

Weekends, we would go over to each other's house and practice guitar, and martial arts, Tae Kwon Do, to be exact. Those were the days when Bruce Lee was very popular, and as I recalled, we used to go to school, elementary school that is, with our own version of nan-cha-ku, tucked away in out book bag, away from the sight of our teachers. As I think about those days now, I never fail to relish its splendor. The days of innocence, never again to be revisited. However, at times when I look at my son, who is thirteen years old now, I could almost see him enacting some of the things I did in the past.

My best friend, Harry, is no longer in contact with me. We have lost contact since we went on to separate secondary schools. He was in St. Patrick's Secondary School, and I went on to Raffles Institution for my secondary school. Do I miss him now, at the age of 49? Yes, I do. I had wanted to get in touch with him, and possibly some of my old classmates from Primary school, but they are no where to be found. I heard many years ago that Harry went on to be a sailor after graduation from seaman's course. It will be nice to know how everyone is doing.

Best friends are like old wine, and the older they are the better. I just wish that someday, somehow, I will be able to reestablish contact with Harry Wong. So, Harry Wong Kok Hoong, if you are reading this, please get in touch with me. I am Ding Soon Kheong, I remember you used to call me Ding.

This much I remember about you... Old address at 38 Lorong 14 Geylang Road. Your birthday is on October 30, 1961. Our primary school was Geylang English School, and yes, you had a dog named Bobby back then. exesmr@yahoo.com

Monday, November 29, 2010

Don't Quit!

When things go wrong as they sometimes will,
When the road you're trudging seems all up hill,
When the funds are low and the debts are high
And you want to smile, but you have to sigh,
When care is pressing you down a bit,
Rest if you must, but don't you quit.
Life is queer with its twists and turns,
As every one of us sometimes learns,
And many a failure turns about
When he might have won had he stuck it out;
Don't give up though the pace seems slow--
You may succeed with another blow,
Success is failure turned inside out--
The silver tint of the clouds of doubt,
And you never can tell how close you are,
It may be near when it seems so far;
So stick to the fight when you're hardest hit--
It's when things seem worst that you must not quit.

Tuesday, September 14, 2010

In Ever Loving Memory of Lovely Evana (2 Oct 2009 - 5 Sept 2010)

I felt so honoured to present a speech during the funeral service at the church for Lovely Evana. 
This was my speech...

"Yes Jesus love you (3x), The bible tells me so..lovely lovely please don’t cry, lovely lovely close your eyes, lovely lovely time to sleep,  mummy here take care of you………….
My brothers & sisters in Christ..my name is Freda and I was the grandaunt of Lovely Evana…

The song that i just sang was not just an ordinary song. It was not just a gospel song but that was the lullaby , which was always sang by Lovely’s mum, Lisa (My beloved best friend, childhood friend and darling cousin),  had made her heart rate beat faster and stayed a little longer by her side while she was struggling on a battle to live on her critical moment last Sunday morning..it was hard, and indeed painful to let her go..but she had enough to suffer  for 11 months..At last, we let her go to be with the Lord and spread her wings to become an angel in heaven.

Lovely Evana was born on the 2nd October, 2009 during the Guardian Angels Feast Day. She was diagnosed to have ‘Large PDA Heart’ not long after she was born. Thus, she had to undergo heart operation at IJN, KL when she was only four months..Unfortunately she didn’t recover fully from the operation and her heath condition got even worse, whereby it affected both of her kidneys. She had been in an out from the hospital mostly and more and more illnesses were discovered. Soon, she had lungs infection and suffered breathing difficulty. ..alas, she succumbed to death on Sept 05 at 12.50am due to kidney failure, chronic lung infection..

However, during her lifetime, she had been known well by the nurses and doctors even the security guards in the hospital..not because of her illnesses, but because she was lovely and cheerful..Lovely Evana (What a wonderful name suit her personaliy)…she had lighted our days, touched our hearts but she never failed to give her lovely smile with a cute dimple on her right cheek (dimple-dimple)..blink her eyes like ‘mingkikiut’ (eyes-eyes)…She’s the most  steadfast  baby I’d ever seen, who was always ill but cheerful..nobody will ever have the sweetest smile like Lovely Evana again, and She will be forever missed and never forgotten. .

Our Tiny darling angel, Lovely Evana…rest in eternal peace in heaven. Your Mummy, daddy, koko, grandmas & granddads, uncles & aunties will always love and remember you in our hearts & prayers.

We'll remember you with all your special nuances and our memories from all the days gone before that we were privileged to share with you...

And today we'll grieve for you, and cry for you and even smile because of you...
And in all the tomorrows we'll feel you - gone in some ways, but your presence ever near.
Go well...stay well...always."

Little Angel Unknown

© Ronnie Hunter
A little angel unknown I, am, my place is as an angel in a secret land.
I didn't have a name as such, you didn't get the chance,
I wasn't meant to live on earth just touch you by the hand.
I've been sent to touch your lives and I know you’ll think that cruel,
but its only special people that are chosen exceptions to the rules.
I knew you would love me from the very start,
from that first sighting & beating of my tiny heart,
so I know that it will hurt you that you have to say goodbye,
but I am your guardian angel now and I'll dry the tears from your eyes.
I'll be there by your side wherever you now go,
I will hear you speak of me often & what I might have been if I'd grown,
I'll be the special angel in the picture that you have,
I'll remind you of my brother & my dad,
I'll have your little features all of you as one
& I'll love you always as my special mum.
You might not have got to see me as a living breathing thing,
but I'll be the ribbon around your heart and my love will be deep within,
this pleasure I promise will be mine,
to be your guardian angel from now until the end of time.
I'll gift you with my presence every night within your dreams,
walk always as your special unknown angel
gifted to you within just for a short while,
so think of me often and smile,
For I, am your very own special unknown gifted child.

Source: Little Angel Unknown, Baby Death Poems http://www.familyfriendpoems.com/death/poetry.asp?poem=21737#ixzz0zTI0g5Xz

A Message of Hope from Nick Vujicic

These quotes give an insight to the plight of those people who have failed in their lives and their feelings of heart.

My will shall shape the future. Whether I fail or succeed shall be no man's doing but my own. I am the force; I can clear any obstacle before me or I can be lost in the maze. My choice; my responsibility; win or lose, only I hold the key to my destiny.
Elaine Maxwell

You've got to take the bitter with the sour.
Samuel Goldwyn

Every great mistake has a halfway moment, a split second when it can be recalled and perhaps remedied.
Pearl S. Buck

Most things break, including hearts. The lessons of life amount not to wisdom, but to scar tissue and callus.
Wallace Stegner

The best way out is always through.
Robert Frost

A failure is a man who has blundered but is not capable of cashing in on the experience.
Elbert Hubbard

We learn wisdom from failure much more than from success. We often discover what will do, by finding out what will not do; and probably he who never made a mistake never made a discovery.
Samuel Smiles

Freedom is not worth having if it does not connote freedom to err.
Mohandas K. Gandhi

It is a mistake to suppose that men succeed through success; they much oftener succeed through failures. Precept, study, advice, and example could never have taught them so well as failure has done.
Samuel Smiles

The torment of human frustration, whatever its immediate cause, is the knowledge that the self is in prison, its vital force and "mangled mind" leaking away in lonely, wasteful self-conflict.
Elizabeth Drew

It is very easy to forgive others their mistakes; it takes more grit and gumption to forgive them for having witnessed your own.
Jessamyn West

Only those who dare to fail greatly can ever achieve greatly.
Robert F. Kennedy

A life spent making mistakes is not only more honorable but more useful than a life spent in doing nothing.
George Bernard Shaw

There are two kinds of failures: those who thought and never did, and those who did and never thought.
Laurence J. Peter

It is on our failures that we base a new and different and better success.
Havelock Ellis

Courage is going from failure to failure without losing enthusiasm.
Winston Churchill

Mishaps are like knives, that either serve us or cut us, as we grasp them by the blade or the handle.
James Russell Lowell

I cannot give you the formula for success, but I can give you the formula for failure: which is: Try to please everybody.
Herbert B. Swope

Do not waste yourself in rejection, nor bark against the bad, but chant the beauty of the good.
Ralph Waldo Emerson

Many of life's failures are people who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up.
Thomas Alva Edison

Success consists of going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm.
Winston Churchill

If you bungle raising your children, I don't think whatever else you do well matters very much.
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis

Life is a process of becoming, a combination of states we have to go through. Where people fail is that they wish to elect a state and remain in it. This is a kind of death.
Anais Nin

I have not failed. I've just found 10,000 ways that won't work.
Thomas Alva Edison

Failure is instructive. The person who really thinks learns quite as much from his failures as from his successes.
John Dewey

Life is to be lived, not controlled, and humanity is won by continuing to play in face of certain defeat.
Ralph Ellison

The deepest human defeat suffered by human beings is constituted by the difference between what one was capable of becoming and what one has in fact become.
Ashley Montagu

The mystery of existence is the connection between our faults and our misfortunes.
Madame de Stael

Good people are good because they've come to wisdom through failure. We get very little wisdom from success, you know.
William Saroyan

Love the moment. Flowers grow out of dark moments. Therefore, each moment is vital. It affects the whole. Life is a succession of such moments and to live each, is to succeed.
Corita Kent

A garden is always a series of losses set against a few triumphs, like life itself.
May Sarton

It is better to have enough ideas for some of them to be wrong, than to be always right by having no ideas at all.
Edward de Bono
You won't skid if you stay in a rut.   
Kin Hubbard

Experience is simply the name we give our mistakes.
Oscar Wilde

No garden is without its weeds.
Thomas Fuller

We read the world wrong and say that it deceives us.
Rabindranath Tagore

Not doing more than the average is what keeps the average down.
William M. Winans
A Failure is not important..How you overcome it is....