Tuesday, December 28, 2010

Merry Christmas & Happy New Year to all visitors of this blog (^_^)


Check out this SlideShare Presentation:
It is tested in Final Exam for UFS 201

Question Tags in ESL


auxiliary verb + subject

1. If the auxiliary verb in the sentence is positive, the tag is negative.
You are Spanish, aren't you?

2. If the auxiliary verb in the sentence is negative, the tag is positive.
You're not Spanish, are you?

3. If there is no auxiliary verb in the sentence, we use do.
You live in Spain, don't you?

Functions and examples

1. We use tag questions to confirm information.
This meal is horrible, isn't it?
That film was fantastic, wasn't it?

2. We use tag questions when we are already sure of the answer and just want confirmation (falling intonation with the tag question).

3. We use tag questions to check information.
You haven't got a piece of paper, have you?
You don't know where the boss is, do you?
The meeting's tomorrow at 9am, isn't it?

4. If we do not know the answer, these are real questions, and we use a rising intonation with the tag question.

Important points

1. In the present tense, if the subject is 'I', the auxiliary changes to 'are' or 'aren't'.
I'm sitting next to you, aren't I?

2. With 'let's', the tag question is 'shall we'.
Let's go to the beach, shall we?

3. With an imperative, the tag question is 'will you'.
Close the window, will you?

4. We use a positive tag question after a sentence containing a negative word such as never, hardly, nobody.
Nobody lives in this house, do they?
You've never liked me, have you?

5. When the subject is nothing, we use 'it' in the tag question.
Nothing bad happened, did it?

6. When the subject is nobody, somebody, everybody, no one, someone, or everyone, we use'they' in the tag question.
Nobody asked for me, did they?

7. If the main verb in the sentence is 'have' (not an auxiliary verb), it is more common to use 'do'in the question tag.
You have a Ferrari, don't you?

8. With used to, we use 'didn't' in the tag question.
You used to work here, didn't you?

9. We can use positive question tags after positive sentences to express a reaction such as surprise or interest.
You're moving to Brazil, are you?

Going Green General Tips

Every little bit is a step to help save the earth.

If you want to learn more about the tip then just click on the link (if available) to go to a page that will elaborate on the topic.
  1. Change to Fluorescent Bulbs - If every house in the United States changed all of the light bulbs in their house, that would be equivalent to taking one million cars off the streets.
  2. Don't Rinse - Skip rinsing your plates before putting them into the dishwasher. In average you will save 15 gallons of water per load. Plus, you will save time.
  3. Hang Outside to Dry - Get a cloths line or rack to dry your cloths. Your cloths will last longer and you will save money
  4. Turn off computers at night - don't just put them to sleep. You will save an average of 4 cents a day which ads up to $14.60 a year.
  5. Use Both Sides of Paper - if you have a printer with a double sided print option use it. You will save half of the amount of paper you would have normally used.

    Then when your done bring it to the recycle bin.
  6. Get rid of baths - Don't take baths, take showers. You will in average save about half the amount of water that you would if you were taking a bath.
  7. Don't get bottled water - Instead of bottled water get a reusable container to carry water. Also you can get a filter to make your home tap taste more like bottled water. It is definitely more cost efficient.
  8. Turn the water off when you brush - Your parents have said this before, now I say it. You will save 4 gallons of water doing this alone.
  9. Shorten your shower - Every minute you cut from your shower is roughly 5 gallons of water. The less time your shower takes, the lower your impact on the environment.
  10. Recycle Glass - If you do not recycle this, it will take a million years to decompose.
  11. Don't Pre-Heat the Oven - unless needed, just turn the oven on after you put the dish in it. Also, to see if it's finished just look through the glass instead of opening it.
  12. Use Warm or Cold Setting on Washer - instead of the hot cycle use the warm or cold setting. This will save a lot of energy a year.
  13. Turn Down your Thermostat - Every degree lower in the winter or higher in the summer you put it is a 10% decrease on your energy bill.
  14. Turn off your lights - An easy one. Turn off your lights when you are not using them. The benefits are obvious.
  15. Get rid of junk mail - There are many services that can help you get rid of junk mail. That will lead to a lot less trees being cut down to take up room in your mailbox.
  16. Use Matches instead of lighters - Lighters are usually considered disposable so they will most likely end up in land fills. You can use the cardboard matches which are much more eco-friendly because they are made of recycled material.
  17. Don't get a paper phone book - Instead of getting a paper phone book. Use a online directory instead.
  18. Give things away - Take things that you are not going to wear or use and give it to a charity or someone who will use it.
  19. Go to a car wash - Going to a car wash is a lot more water efficient then washing your car at home.
  20. Stop paper bank statements - Why waste paper getting your bank statement mailed to you when you can just check it out online.
  21. Buy Rechargeable Batteries - Even though it will take a good investment to buy these you will find yourself gaining it back in no time.
  22. Pay your Bills Online - If every house in the US did this then we would save 18 million trees every year.
  23. Get a reusable bag - You can't recycle plastic bags, instead get yourself a reusable bag so that you won't have to worry about carrying your necessities.
  24. Do Errands in Bulk - Make a list of the things you have to do, and see if you can fit a couple of those things together in one ride.
  25. Inflate your Tires - If your tires are inflated at all times your car will run more miles on less gas.
  26. Wrap Presents Creatively - Without going out to get wrapping paper you can use newspaper, an old map, or anything else. It would look a whole lot more creative.
  27. Plant a Tree - It's good for the air, can keep you cool, and can increase your property value.
  28. Buy Local Produce - Consider how much energy it takes for produce from china or any other country to come here. If you have the option to buy local, do it.
  29. Walk or Ride Your Bike When you can - If you have to go somewhere close consider riding your bike or walking there instead of your car. It's better on the environment and healthier.

Guide to Forming the Verb Phrase in Conditional Sentences

Factual Conditional Sentences: FORMING THE VERB OR VERB PHRASE

1. To express a future possibility or make a prediction

Condition Clause                               Result Clause
Present tense                                      will, can, should, could, may, might + base form
Present progressive tense
Present perfect tense


If countries do not conserve their resources, they will regret it later.

If Andreas is telephoning me right now, he will get a busy signal.

*Note: A conditional sentence with the modal will expresses the strongest possibility, a prediction.  The
other modals indicate a lesser degree of possibility.


If you have not bought your ticket, you may not get a seat.

If Mina is not attending class regularly, she could fail the course.

If the letter has not come by now, it might not arrive at all.

2. To express a general fact or a habitual action

Condition Clause                               Result Clause
Same tense                                          same tense


If a caterpillar matures, it becomes a chrysalis. (fact)

Whenever my roommate studied late, I stayed up too. (habitual action)

*Note: When and whenever are often used instead of if to express a habitual action.

3. To make an inference

Condition Clause                                Result Clause
Present tense                                       must or should + base form
Past tense                                            must have + past participle


If the store is already closed, it must be later than we thought.

If Nam really did lose his wallet instead of misplacing it, he must have felt very nervous.  

4. To give a command or instructions

Condition Clause                                 Result Clause
Present tense                                        imperative
Past tense
Present perfect tense


If you miss the lecture, go to see the teacher.

If you missed the lecture, go to see the teacher.

If you have missed the lecture, go to see the teacher.

Hypothetical Conditional Sentences: FORMING THE VERB OR VERB PHRASE

1. To express a present or future hypothetical or contrary-to-fact situation

*Note: In the condition clause, when the simple past form or the past progressive form is used,
were is used for all forms of be.

Condition Clause                                          Result Clause
Simple past form                                          would, could, might + base form
                                                                    would, could, might + base form + ing
Past progressive form                                   would, could, might + base form
                                                                    would, could, might + base form + ing
Could, would + base form                            would, could, might + base form

If I were you, I would save more money.
If Gabriel lived at home instead of in the dormitory, he would have a quiet place to study.
If Mona cleaned up her apartment every week, she would not always be complaining about how
messy it is.
If Sheila were not working in the dining hall, she could not afford college.
If Mike could find his library card, he would start his term paper.

*Note: In the example sentences above, were to + a preposition may be used for the simple past
form of the verb, as in If Gabriel were to live at home or If Mona were to clean her apartment
every week.

2. To express a hypothetical situation in the past
Condition Clause                                          Result Clause
Past perfect form                                          would, could, might + have + past participle
                                                                    would, could, might + have + been + base form + ing
Past perfect progressive form                        would, could, might + have + past participle
                                                                     would, could, might + have + been + base form + ing

If Gail had turned her lab report in on time, she would have received the full ten points on it.
If Lana had not refused to lend us his car, we could have been driving to the beach right now.
Natasha might have enjoyed the movie if she had not been concentrating so hard on
understanding what the actors were saying.
If Carmen had been paying attention in class, he would not have been asking his friends how to
do the assignment last night.

5 Paragraph Essay

Example of Essay - "My Best Friend"

English Composition Writing on My Best Friend

My best friend is someone I have known since my childhood. Our friendship goes back to the time when I was ten years old. His name is Harry, and he lived a couple of blocks from my house. We had a lot in common, and we spent time together during the weekends. 

I remembered many of my favorite hobbies were because of his influence. I learned to play the guitar from him, and I started martial arts classes because he did the same. That was back in the year 1974. Now you know how old I am. That is right, the years have gone by, and even today as I sit here typing on my computer, I still have my guitar sitting right beside me. It was a hobby that changed my life and I thank him because he was the one who taught me how to play the guitar. I remember the days when we used to have our own bicycles. That was my first bicycle, and I wanted to have one that look just like Harry's. Strange, but somehow, he seemed to be a big influence on me in my early years. Maybe because I saw him as a role model.

Weekends, we would go over to each other's house and practice guitar, and martial arts, Tae Kwon Do, to be exact. Those were the days when Bruce Lee was very popular, and as I recalled, we used to go to school, elementary school that is, with our own version of nan-cha-ku, tucked away in out book bag, away from the sight of our teachers. As I think about those days now, I never fail to relish its splendor. The days of innocence, never again to be revisited. However, at times when I look at my son, who is thirteen years old now, I could almost see him enacting some of the things I did in the past.

My best friend, Harry, is no longer in contact with me. We have lost contact since we went on to separate secondary schools. He was in St. Patrick's Secondary School, and I went on to Raffles Institution for my secondary school. Do I miss him now, at the age of 49? Yes, I do. I had wanted to get in touch with him, and possibly some of my old classmates from Primary school, but they are no where to be found. I heard many years ago that Harry went on to be a sailor after graduation from seaman's course. It will be nice to know how everyone is doing.

Best friends are like old wine, and the older they are the better. I just wish that someday, somehow, I will be able to reestablish contact with Harry Wong. So, Harry Wong Kok Hoong, if you are reading this, please get in touch with me. I am Ding Soon Kheong, I remember you used to call me Ding.

This much I remember about you... Old address at 38 Lorong 14 Geylang Road. Your birthday is on October 30, 1961. Our primary school was Geylang English School, and yes, you had a dog named Bobby back then. exesmr@yahoo.com