Tuesday, August 25, 2009

The longest words in English Language

These words are not easy to pronounce but you can give it a try anyway. For your information, there are few examples of the longest words.

The longest real word is...

28 letters - Antidisestablishmentarianism

This is the longest word that is accepted without question by everyone. Although some people like to stretch it further with suffixes and prefixes like pseudoantidisestablishmentarianistically. But seriously, no one has ever needed a word for "in the manner of false opposition to the separation of church and state".

The longest "real" word is...

29 letters - Floccinaucinihilipilification

This is the longest word that is in the Oxford English Dictionary. It was coined rather than evolved, hence my quotes, but it has been around long enough that its origins aren't very clear and is widely used by literary geeks everywhere. So it's an honorary real word.

The word everyone thinks is the longest...

34 letters - Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious

Even though this is commonly regarded as The Longest Word in the English Language, it was coined for the sake of being long. If we're going to consider coined words in published works, then Osseocarnisanguineoviscericartilaginonervomedullary (51 letters) from Thomas Love Peacock's Headlong Hall published in 1815 wins by 17 letters.

The longest place name is...

85 letters - Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateaturipukakapikimaungahoronukupokaiwhenuakitanatahu

A hill in New Zealand with a Maori name that translates to "The summit where Tamatea, the man with the big knees, the climber of mountains, the land-swallower who travelled about, played his nose flute to his loved one".

The medical term everyone thinks is the longest...

45 letters - Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis

This is a lung disease that miners can get that is sometimes shortened to "white lung". Yes, it's a real word, but if we're going to start accepting medical terms into the list of longest English words, then we must also allow this next one in...

An even longer scientific term that arguably is still not the longest...

1913 letters - Methionylglutami nylarginyltyrosy lglutamylserylle ucylphenylalanyl alanylglutaminyl leucyllysylgluta mylarginyllysylg lutamylglycylala nylphenylalanylvalylprolylphenyl alanylvalylthreo nylleucylglycyla spartylprolylgly cylisoleucylglut amylglutaminylse rylleucyllysylis oleucylaspartylt hreonylleucyliso leucylglutamylalanylglycylalanyl aspartylalanylle ucylglutamylleuc ylglycylisoleucy lprolylphenylala nylserylaspartyl prolylleucylalan ylaspartylglycyl prolylthreonylis oleucylglutaminylasparaginylalan ylthreonylleucyl arginylalanylphe nylalanylalanyla lanylglycylvalyl threonylprolylal anylglutaminylcy steinylphenylala nylglutamylmethi onylleucylalanylleucylisoleucyla rginylglutaminyl lysylhistidylpro lylthreonylisole ucylprolylisoleu cylglycylleucyll eucylmethionylty rosylalanylaspar aginylleucylvaly lphenylalanylasparaginyllysylgly cylisoleucylaspa rtylglutamylphen ylalanyltyrosyla lanylglutaminylc ysteinylglutamyl lysylvalylglycyl valylaspartylser ylvalylleucylval ylalanylaspartylvalylprolylvalyl glutaminylglutam ylserylalanylpro lylphenylalanyla rginylglutaminyl alanylalanylleuc ylarginylhistidy lasparaginylvaly lalanylprolyliso leucylphenylalanylisoleucylcyste inylprolylprolyl aspartylalanylas partylaspartylas partylleucylleuc ylarginylglutami nylisoleucylalan ylseryltyrosylgl ycylarginylglycy ltyrosylthreonyltyrosylleucylleu cylserylarginyla lanylglycylvalyl threonylglycylal anylglutamylaspa raginylarginylal anylalanylleucyl prolylleucylaspa raginylhistidyll eucylvalylalanyllysylleucyllysyl glutamyltyrosyla sparaginylalanyl alanylprolylprol ylleucylglutamin ylglycylphenylal anylglycylisoleu cylserylalanylpr olylaspartylglut aminylvalyllysylalanylalanylisol eucylaspartylala nylglycylalanyla lanylglycylalany lisoleucylserylg lycylserylalanyl isoleucylvalylly sylisoleucylisol eucylglutamylglu taminylhistidylasparaginylisoleu cylglutamylproly lglutamyllysylme thionylleucylala nylalanylleucyll ysylvalylphenyla lanylvalylglutam inylprolylmethio nyllysylalanylal anylthreonylarginylserine

This is a really large protein with the formula C1289H2051N343O375S8 and yet, there are arguably even larger scientific words that can created by slapping hundreds of prefixes and suffixes upon other science terms.

All the Words in English Language

Really entertaining ! Try it.. =)

Galileo's Telescope

At a first glance when I visited 'Google' today I realised that the logo (Google Doodle) has changed and I was wondering what kind of special occasion that they were celebrating today. I pointed to the logo and found the answer...and it's "Galileo's telescope reaches 400th anniversary". Follow this article for further information.

It is 400 years since Galileo Galilei demonstrated his telescope, which would lead him to make new astronomical observations.

Galileo's telescope helped the astronomer to learn more about our solar system.
This is a reconstruction of the telescope.
Photograph: Jim Sugar/Corbis

While many people have been loudly celebrating this year's double commemoration of 200 years since Charles Darwin's birth and 150 years since the publication of On the Origin of Species, another scientific anniversary has crept up relatively quietly, marking an event which arguably changed human thought and the way we see ourselves even more irrevocably.

Exactly 400 years ago today, on 25 August 1609, the Italian astronomer and philosopher Galilei Galileo showed Venetian merchants his new creation, a telescope – the instrument that was to bring him both scientific immortality and, more immediately, a whole lot of trouble.

A refinement of models first devised in the Netherlands, Galileo's slim, brown stick was puny even by the standards of something one might buy in hobby shop today. But his eight-powered telescope, and the more powerful models he soon produced, when pointed skywards led Galileo to a series of groundbreaking conclusions.

The moon was not, as long believed, completely smooth. Another planet, Jupiter, also had moons. Meanwhile Venus showed a range of moon-like phases, something which could not happen if both it and the sun orbited the earth.

This latter phenomenon had been predicted by Nicolaus Copernicus when, nearly a century before, he had proposed the notion of a planetary system with the sun at the centre, not the earth.

Galileo's discoveries were, perhaps predictably, not best welcomed by the Catholic church, and he spent the final decade of his life under house arrest.

It was certainly a revelation which upset the orthodoxies – and the churches – at least as much as Darwin's, and perhaps merits a bit more of fuss, although museum-goers in Philadelphia and Stockholm can view one of Galileo's very early telescopes, on loan this year from Florence. A good deal more people are likely to be alerted thanks to Google's day-long adaptation of their main page logo to a Google Doodle in honour of the event.

Wednesday, August 19, 2009


There are 3 main ways of producing minutes of a meeting.

1 Verbatim Minutes

2 Minutes of Resolution

3 Minutes of Narration

Verbatim Minutes

These are used primarily in court reporting, where everything is recorded word for word.

Minutes of Resolution

The discussions that took place are not recorded, only the main conclusions. The exact wording of any resolutions passed should be recorded, as in the following example:


The Company Secretary submitted a report from the Administration Manager containing full details of the trial of the Canon photocopier.

IT WAS RESOLVED THAT the Canon photocopier be purchased at a cost of RM3,750.

Minutes of Narration

These minutes will be a concise summary of all the discussions which took place and the conclusions reached.


The Company Secretary submitted a report from the Administration Manager containing full details of the trial of the Canon Photocopier which had been used for a period of 4 weeks in the Printing Room. The machine’s many benefits were pointed out, including reduction/enlarging facilities and collating. After discussion, it was agreed that such a machine would be extremely valuable in the Company.

The Company Secretary was asked to make the necessary arrangements for the photocopier to be purchased at the quoted price of RM3,750.

Example of A Complete Minutes




Mr Charles Wee (Chairman)

Ms Connie Chen (Secretary)

Mrs Alison Chin (Treasurer)

Mr Fandi Jadi

Mr James Tan

Mrs Wendy Moo


Mr Ahmad Zulkarnain

Ms Chia Sok Huang



Apologies were received from Mr Ahmad and

Ms Chia. Both are currently attending business

conferences overseas.


The minutes were approved and signed by the

Chairman as a correct report.


There were no matters arising.


The Chairman pointed out that over the last 6 months

membership had fallen by 20%. He suggested a circular

to be sent to all staff who were not members of the Club.

A tear-off slip would be included for interested staff

to indicate their areas of interest. FJ


Mrs Alison took flowers to QE hospital.

A letter of appreciation has been received from QE.


A barbeque will be held on 1 May 200-. Mrs Wendy

will meet with her committee on 1 Mar 200- to discuss

further details. WM


Our company emerged the champion in a friendly match

with other engineering companies in KK.


There was no other business.


It was agreed that the next meeting would be held on

Tuesday, 15 March 200-

_____________________________ (Chairman)

_____________________________ (Date)

16 February 200-


Notice and Agenda of a Meeting

Formal Meetings

Ø The rules of the conduct of such meetings are laid down in the Articles of Association and/or Constitution or Standing Orders.

Ø A quorum must be present (the minimum number of people who should be present in order to validate a meeting).

Ø A specified amount of notice must be given to members.

Ø A formal record of each meeting must be kept.

Informal Meetings

Ø Informal meetings are not restricted by the same rules and regulations as formal meetings.

Ø Strict agendas may not be used, especially in brainstorming or discussion sessions.

Ø A record of what took place may or may not be kept.

Notice And Agenda

The notice states the type, place, day, date and time of the meeting. It may form part of the agenda or it may be a separate document.

The agenda is a list of topics to be discussed at the meeting.

The Notice and Agenda are normally combined in one document. The following headings are recommended in a Notice:


A meeting of the Student Welfare Committee will be held in the

Staffroom on Monday, 14 March 200-, at 1400 hours.

The Agenda is the middle portion of the document – the list of topics which are to be discussed at the meeting.

Ordinary Business. Certain items will be included on the agenda of every meeting – these items are called ordinary business, and include:

Ø at the beginning

1 Apologies for Absence

2 Minutes of Last Meeting

3 Matters Arising

Ø at the end

9 Any Other Business

10 Date of Next Meeting

Special Business. At every meeting, there will be special matters to discuss – such matters are called special business and are placed on the agenda after the opening items of ordinary business. When officials (eg Chairman, Treasurer) have reports to present at a meeting, such items are usually placed first after the opening items:

4 Chairman’s Report

5 Co-Ordinators’ Reports

6 Open House – 12 September

7 Washroom Facilities

8 Counselling Sessions

After the list of agenda items, a space is left for signature of the secretary, whose name and title should be shown below, together with the date of issue and a reference.

space for sender’s signature

Alan Richard (Mr) sender’s name and title

Secretary sender’s position

7 March 200- date of issue

RH/AR reference

Example of A Complete Agenda:


A meeting of the Sports & Social Club Committee will be held in the Refectory on Tuesday, 14 May 200- at 1800 hours.


1 Apologies for Absence

2 Minutes of Last Meeting

3 Matters Arising

4 Chairman’s Report

5 Football Results and Matches

6 New Keep-Fit Classes

7 Purchase of Tennis Equipment

8 Annual Dinner Arrangements

9 Any Other Business

10 Date of Next Meeting

R Farrelly


Honorary Secretary “Honorary Secretary” means that the post is unpaid

1 May 200-